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Folk Songs of the Han Essay Example for Free
kinfolk Songs of the Han EssayIntroduction Of the one billion people in China, over 93% be large to the Han nationality. Consequently,the Chinese acculturationto which most scholarsrefer is unremarkably the Han culture. However, within the Han Chinese culturet here ar differences in custom, dialect, and so forth , payable to historical events and geographic conditions. Chinese ethnomusicologists in recent years grant developed the study of Han Chinese kins family unit melodic phrases based upon geographic factors and subscribe to labelled this study Music Geography. According to Miao Jing and Qiao Jianzhong, two braggy ethnomusicologists advocating this new approach,there argon as many as eleven culture atomic number 18as (which they c all in all similarcolor atomic number 18as)of Han Chinese folk songs (1987 58-61) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) P Northeastern lain P northwesterlyern lain JiangHuai Plateau(northern iangsuand northern nhui) J A Zhe Plain (southerl yJiangsu,southernAnhui, Zhejiang) Jiang Min Thai (FujianandTaiwan) Yue (Guangdong) JiangHan Plain (Hubei, southernHenan) Xiang (Hunan) Gan (Jiangxi) Southwestern lateau P Kejia (Hakkapeople of variousplaces). With the merelyion of the last-named meeting (which is a widely-distributed a sub-culture) ll the above divisions argonbased upon geographicfactors. In the broadergeographicview, the Han Chinese culture whitethorn in addition be dissever into northernand southernstyles, distributively of which is tie ind with one of the two majorrivers of China,the HuangHe (Yellow River) of This substance downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 marching music 2013 202102 PM each custom battleground to JSTOR equipment casualty and Conditions 108 Asian Music, quail/Summer 989 1 the north and the Chang Jiang (Long River, also known as the Yangzi River) of the south.It is comm altogether assumedthatthe HuangHe basin is the cradleof Chinesecivilization. However,recentstudies ( much(prenominal) as Miao 1988 1) indicatethat otherwiseriver basins energise contributed qually to the shapingof e Chinese civilization. Among them is the ChangJiangbasin, which is early t certainlyof tinct importance o the HuangHe. Anothersystem for c jeune filleifying folk songs is by type, of which haozi (worksongs), shange (mountainsongs), and xiaodiao (lyric songs) dominate. I propose to examine both systems, in sequence, in order to obtain as wide a perspectiveas possible on Han folk songs.Differences between Northern and Southern Folk Songs To the thinking of Miao Jing and Qiao Jianzhong (1987 59), the division of Han Chinese folk songs into northern and southern styles honours other aspects of Chinese culture closely. In this division, environmentis seen as playing a signifi placetrole. The HuangHe basin is a cold, dry and windy atomic number 18awhere the main agricultural roductis wheat. The p lower basin is often flooded. The rugged, intense and disjunct typeisticso f the folk songs can be explained by the realities of life on the basin. The Chang Jiangbasin, on the other hand, has mild weatherand much rain.Rice is the main agriculturalproduct. Life is easier for these people and, therefore,the folk songs of this region t residual to be more than lyrical, gentle and conjunctive. thither are many rain-evokingsongs in the Huang He area, but there are none in the Chang Jiang area beca riding habit there is adequate rain for the crops. As a second geographicaspect, local anaesthetic customs are also importantin the ca spendation of folk songs. For instance, in ancient times, people of the Chang Jiang were spirit worshippers. thither are still many funeral songs preserved, such as beatingthe corpsesongs, piety songs, and gongs and drumsof Hell. However, in the HuangHe area,it is not the custom to chant when a man dies and funeral songs are absent (Miao 1988 5-10). Thus, o both environmentand customs determinethe functionandcharacteristics f fol k songs. The following is a summary of Han Chinese folk song d characteristicsbased upon their northern-southern ivisions. It should be This contentedness area downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM altogether use subject to JSTOR monetary value and Conditions Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs 109 tell that most of these features apply primarily to the xiaodiao (lyric songs),one of the threetypes mentionedabove.Scales and Modes. In general, the Huang He area uses either 7-tone or 6-tone scales. The most familiarmodes are the zhi (sol-re), followed in order by shang (re-la), gong (do-sol) and yu (la-mi). (See Appendix for explanation of modes. ) However, in the middle and upper basins of the Huang He area, the shang mode is particularlyfavored. The ChangJiang area,on the otherhand, most commonly uses 5-tone or 4-tone scales. The most everydaymode is also the zhi, followed in orderby gong, yu, shang, and jiao. The yu mode is especially popular in Yunnan pr ovince. Melodic Progression.The line of credit of the Huang He area tends to be more angularthan others in shape and moves in disjunct movement. One characteristic f the time intervallicemphasis,especially in the o upper Huang He basin, is the 4th-2nd-4th progression, such as gl-c2-gl. This is relatedto the accentof the dialect (Du 1983 68). The tessituraof all folk songs of this northernarea tends to be tall. Melody in the Chang Jiang areatends to be smooth and sluein shape, and moves in comparatively conjunctmotion. The consecutive use of 3rds and 5ths is everyday. When there is a skip larger than a 5th, the melody returnsimmediately in the reverse direction.For example when el jumps to c2, it turns back downwardto al, or passes throughbl to al (Jiang 1983 77). The tessitura of the folk songs of this areatends to be in the mediumrange. Musical Form, Strophic physique is common to most Han Chinese folk songs breaking to the shange and xiaodiao categories, but the use of ref rain is not as prominent as in the Western world. In the Huang He area, xiaodiao usually have four phrases season shange are of two phrases. Phrases are normally of equal length. In the e four-phrase social organization, ach phraseor each half phraseis usually set to 7 words.In the Chang Jiang area, both lyric songs and mountainsongs use a four-phrasestructure, gain with phrasesof equal length. In the lyric a song type, each phrase,or half phrase,is usually set to five words. In the teddy of the four-phrasestructure, elodies follow the typical m old sequence qi (opening), subgenus Cheng (inheriting), zhuan (turning), and he (closing), which is an organizational concept borrowed from Chinese This inwardness downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM any use subject to JSTOR equipment casualty and Conditions 110 Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 1 literature.The qi phrase presents the first statementand the chen phrase complements it. The zhuan phrase marks a departurefrom the general movement of the previous phrases, and the he phraseconcludes the piece. This kind of structure s especially give-up the ghost in the xiaodiao of the lower Chang i Jiang basin. Of course, this form is very generaland thereare exceptions. a character 1, Xiu Hebao (Embroidering Pouch), is a love song from northern Shanxi province (Zhongguo Minge Xuan 1980 217). It represents the northernstyle of folk song. The words are about a young girl thinking of her lover while embroidering a pouch for him.(Embroidered pouches were a popular handicraft for women in rural China. ) The scale of this piece is pentatonicand the mode is shang, dI (re) being the final. The appearanceof d2-g2 (m. 1), d2-g2 (m. 2-3), g2-d2 (m. 3), al-d2_g2-d2 (m. 5-6), and gl-c2 (m. 6-7) are clear examples of the emphases on the interval of a 4th, a typical feature of northernfolk song. Consequently, the melodic contour tends to be angular. The form is strophic in two-phrases, each phrase hav ing four measures. in that location are slackly five words to each half phrase, except for occasional short additions,such as at the beginningof the second phrase(m.5-6).Vocables are enclosed in parentheses. The ending notes on half phrases, d2 (m. 2) and gl (m. 6) , the half cadence of gl (m. 4), and cadence of d1 (m. 8) give the piece a solid feeling in the shangmode. Example 2, Meng Jiang Nil (The Eldest Daughter of the Jiang Family), on the other hand, shows typical features of the southern style (ZhongguoMingeXuan 1980 155). The melody of this extremelypopular folk song is found in many parts of China, though often with different text editions. The text given here is from the best-known version of Jiangsu province (lower Chang Jiang basin).The subject is a lament of the eldest daughterof the Jiang family for her husbandwho was draftedby the Qin Emperor(reigned 221-210 B. C. ) to demonstrate the GreatWall. The scale of the piece is pentatonicand the mode is zhi, the final be ing b (sol). The melody moves generally in a smooth contour utilizing essentially step-wise movement. Consequently,with the exception of m. 5 and m. 6, the general tendency of the melody is gently curved ratherthan angular. The form is a typical four-phrasestrophic structure,each phrase having two measures. These four phrasesfollow the qi, cheng, zhuan, and he sequence mentioned above.This is especially clear at the phrase This kernel downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR scathe and Conditions Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs Example1 Xiu Hebao 111 (Shanxiprovince) r36 rIs ML i -s. t If ,. . .E eu3 i M a? L. i * _k A5 I R r w oA M. I Zf, T t. it ME a t ge- ?18 g ai i jjM. 9 7k ,4 4t I )a i -) . Al. A aAl Y. Y L . + ID I*. . . 1. When the moon is laid-back and bright,fifteenthis the day And when the springwind blows willows will swing and sway. 2. Blossoms bloom in March,a lettercomes to me. It was from my only love, asking for a pouch made by me.3. FirstI embroidered pocket-size boat with a sail to see. a And if he sees the sail, hell come sailing to me. 4. Then I embroidered ome love birdsthey swam all over the sea. s They stayedtogetherandwere as close as could be. 5. He is young and strongIm like a blossoming flower. And when he finds the pouch, hell come back for me. a (Text translated nd adapted y RebeccaSchwan) b This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 112 1 Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 Example2 Meng Jiang Nii (Jiangsuprovince) SIr tr =I I i Li7T i4 *. .. iE ,- A =. F 6. t MY Ii , * -lI* f A, 0 1- A r. -tx A ). L 5? .- , p r, 1 bC? il * wAaa o . 0 I i. ti. ?T 1 1 fF tt ff t. t i ii Bi i t n n ? N g 7t i E P m * 0 at t , 5 4 *. 1 w . a h t,o. r. /4 i t R . OE ( 1 . momI I mEI . I W IKE u a3R a S T,ir9-k ARcF. t Ar T ) f UT 5 3L ok p * ? B 1 iC f t , _ I 7( * ( * r i J+ . 1 E , I A 4 ffIBR * rK tAf tI. a . n ai . P -A rL f e p- C _. . * a. , PQ kfr t. . Ik a Es a a , . a it n I _ i ol i 11 4 21t,. . I. 1. clean flowers at New class bringNew Spring, Red lamps are lit at every door.Everyfamily is complete. But my own husbandhas gone to build the wall. 12. it Plum flowers again appearat eve of New Year. g Every home has abundant ood cheer. All preparefor the feast fatedpork andmutton. Meng ChiangNii all alone weeps in bitterness. (Text translated y Bliss WiantandtakenfromWiant 1947 37). b This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs 113 cadences of f (m. 2), b (m. 4), c1 (m. 6) and b (m. 8). B (sol) and f (re) are the most importanttones of the mode. There are twelve stanzas. all(prenominal) half phraseis set to seven words. The text of each stanzabegins with the name of a month. This is a typical featureof xiaodiao, as we shall see laterin the descriptionof this gen re. Classification of Folk Song by Type Most Chinese ethnomusicologists (such as Jiang 1982 passim) follow a three-fold classification system for Han Chinese folk songs namely haozi (work songs), shange (mountainsongs), and xiaodiao (lyric songs). Each type may furtherbe divided into sub-types. Haozi ( practise Songs) The Chinese name for this category, haozi, means crying or a shouting, n indicationof its origins in labor.The functionof this type of is to accompanywork or to relieve hardshipduringwork. Most work song songs feature strong rhythms, and for each a basic swingy pattern underlies the complete piece. This is true of the work songs of any people in the world. Melodic materialis ratherlimited and ostinato used frequently. Work songs are exclusively vocal and the rangeis normallywide. Texts are not organized in any established poetical form and there are numerous vocables used. Solo, unison, duet and call-and-response are typical mannersof performance fit in to specific working conditions. There are five sub-typesof work songs 1.Transporting Songs. This sub-type refers to songs sing by laborers who carry, drag, or push a heavy load. overdue to the extreme a corporal requirements ssociatedwith these activities, most of the songs are short and sung in loud voices. Example3 is the beginningof a transporting song from Hangzhouin Zhejiangprovince. It is sung by portersin the style of call (m. 1, 3, 5, ) and response (m. 2, 4, 6, ). The scale is pentatonicand the rangewithin one octave. The mode appearsto be yu (lami). 1 This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions.114 Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 1 Example3 UntitledTransporting ong S call (Zhejiangprovince) etc. re LpqAQ 4 4? _c etc. 0 2. ConstructionSongs. This sub-type is sung when workers are building a house or road, digging a canal, gatheringstones, cutting wood, hammering a pole, etc. It requires unified rhythms because of the group action snarled in working, and is also often sung in call-and-response style. The vocal range is usually wide. Example 4 is a dike-buildingsong from Hubei province sung in call (m. 1-2, 5-6) and response (m. 3-4, 7-) (Jiang 1982 73). 2 The melody is pentatonic in the zhi mode (sol-re).Note the wide range in the first measure. The vocables are shown in parentheses. Example4 Dae Ge, Dike-buildingSong (Hubeiprovince) res b ,-_ -, s . , t l Ii. twit o I C),v0 IL i4.? t ( Pomegranates ai) blossom (lie) (ya wei yi a ye a ye), Leaves are green (lie ya a ye), (a ye a ye ye a ye), Leaves are green (ye a a ye). (Translated y the author) b This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 1? Vj iC) Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs 115 3. FarmingSongs. Not all farmingactivitiesrequiresinging.The sub-typereferredto here let ins group-activitysongs sung while pumping water, threshing grain, etc. Since t he physical burdenis lighter than that associated with previous sub-types, the songs take on a character of entertainment. In fact, some farming songs are close to the shange category. Example 5 is a water-pumping song from Jiangsu province (Jiang 1982 76). It is in pentatonic scale, shang mode (re-la). The vocables (shown in parentheses) are more prominent than the text. The mood is light, and the entertainingnatureof the song includes the use of a percussioninterlude(m.11-12).Example5 ShuicheHaozi, Water-pumping ong s -WWI k, I.. .. . _. -P- br. . (Jiangsuprovince) (Ai ya ha ai ya ai he he ai ai ya) Xue Rengui (ya) sails the seas conquering(yo de) the eastbound (a ai ya li he). (Translated y the author) b 4. Sailing and Fishing Songs. Sailing and fishing songs are more complicated in form and content than the above sub-types. In the sailing sub-type, working conditions change according to water currents and weather conditions the music changes accordingly. Many songs are constr ucted in suite style (i. e. , multi-sectional) which are long and elaborate.Call-and-responses a frequently-used echnique. i t 5. Miscellaneous Songs. Work songs which do not pass to the above sub-typesare includedhere. They can be sung by workersin the salt This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 116 1 Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 field, by woodcutters, and by weavers, etc. The characteristicsof their songs vary accordingto each type of work. Shange (Mountain Songs) The term shange (mountainsongs) does not mean thatthe songs are of necessity sung in the mountains.The term should be understoodto mean songs sung in an open area, which may be near a mountainor in an open field. Some shange are sung while working, but the associated physical requirementis usually minimal. Thus, they are not included in the haozi category. Examples of these work songs are herding songs and field songs. These will be mentionedlater. In general,shange are freerin rhythmand higherin pitch thanhaozi or xiaodiao. Texts are improvisedto a great extent. Vocables and falsetto a are used frequentlywhich, along with the precedingtwo characteristics, re due mostly to the outdoor environment in which they are sung.Shange may begin and end with a high and long fermata,developed from shouting to get attentionin the outdoorenvironment. The alternating tyle of singing s is a favoritemethodsince many shangeinvolve love themes sung between a man and a woman. The musical form of shange can be in two, four, or even five phrases with insertions of extra sections in the set structurebeing frequent due to its improvisednature. There are three sub-typesof shange general, herdingand field songs. 1. General Songs. Most songs which belong to this sub-type are lyrical songs with a love subject, and are expressive of the singers thoughts.They are not related to working conditions. There are more shange in this category tha n the other two sub-types. General moutain songs can be found in many parts of China and are identified by different names. Those found in the Northwest and North ( i. e. , Upper and Central Huang He basin) have special names such as xintianyou (sing as you like),pashan diao (climbmountaintune),huaer (flower song)those found in the south (i. e. , Chang Jiang basin and Taiwan) are simply called shange. This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions.Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs 117 Example 6, local area network Huahua, is a xintianyou shange from the northern of Shaanxiprovinceand is one of the most famous of northern hinese C part songs. The text mentions the in a bad way(p) marriage arrangements of the peasant girl, Lan Huahua,in ruralChina. The melody is pentatonic,in the yu mode and the structureis in two phrases, both ending on gl (la). The high cry in the beginning, notated as a high-pitched fermatain m. 2, is a typical feature of the shange. The tessitura is generally high and the direction of the melody at the end moves from high to low.This song is lyrical in nature,with a rhythmthat is freer, when sung, than the notation indicates (ZhongguoMinge Xuan 1980 168). Example 7, Ge Youmai (Wheat Cutting), is a shange from Shaanxi province in northernChina. This is a beneficial example of the use of insertions in shange. In its original form, it is a simple two-phrasepiece, with each phrasehaving four measures(7-a). Due to the insertions(7-b, m. 3-4, 8-11)and slight alterations(7-b, m. 2, 13), it is expandedinto a longer piece, but is still in two phrases (Jiang 1982 128-129). The piece is pentatonic in zhi mode.Its generally high tessitura, conjunct melodic movement, and emphasison the intervalof a 4th (7-b, m. 1, 7) are typical of the northernstyle. The fermatain m. 1 is also a featureof the shange, and the entire piece has several others as well. There are suggestions of a love t heme in the text. This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 118 Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 1 Example6 Lan Huahua (Shaanxiprovince) _ F- 1 F. a l * . Ti i . _ E 7E* 1 1 rF s f, IA in,* J o 1f1 A 7ft . 1, I .. N. .. 5. f *E T op/ . iv . T t x m. 1 1-1 i 4v IT I X. AI a A I E T1 4. IT La t +Ix *. * *m , m ji 8 114 , 1In 1f f , LI . r.. q I. 00 _i __ MR -MI , PSI $ 1. Threadsof black and threadsof blue, bluerthanthe sky. Sewed for baby Lan Huahua,apple of her motherseye. 2. guess up like the sorghumtall, beautybringsher fame. In every village in the land, everybodyknows her name. 3. New Year broughtthe matchmaker, ixed the bridegrooms f price. later on the paymentsmade in March,in April shellbecome his wife. 4. Wedding music fills the air, drumsand whistles sound. She is tornfrom her own truelove andcarriedto the Zhou compound.(English text from Mai 1984 19-20, first four verses) This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs Example7 Ge Youmai 119 (Shanxiprovince) 7-a IF I r AZK r I3 W I / ((I*I 41 IUp r a I 1117RR I .16 v U114 7. i r I a (-Ia. I ) *2I. II 7-a Brotheris cuttingwheatin the mountain. Sister is digging herbmedicine in the swamp. 7-b Brotheris up in the mountain(si lo) (si lo) cuttingwheat. minuscular sisteris in the swamp,in the ditch, at the divergingroad (ge beng) (ge beng) digging the herbmedicine (a mo) beloved.(Translated y the author) b 2. Herding Songs. Herding songs are sung mainly by boys in the field. Some include passages which call the herds, while working others are sung in question-answerstyle between two boys. Most herding songs are simple and free in structure. In fact, some are very simple childrens songs. 3. Field Songs. Songs which belong to this sub-type are sung in the rice fields while plantingseeds, tilling soil, etc. , to pr omote fervency andrelease tension. It is said thatat one time specializedtroupeswere hired to sing in the fields (Jiang 1982 162). However, since these songs are not.This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions great hundred Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 1 restrictedby working conditions and are somewhat entertainingin nature, they are not con officered to be haozi and some fit more closely into the xiaodiao category. Field songs are sung in a high voice, often with falsetto. The melodies tend to be long and the rhythmsfree, which are typical featuresof shange. However, the natureof the field songs is more complex because they are sung in call-and-responsewith ostinato, which are features of the haozi.As Jiang Mingdun states, field songs are basedon the shange but mixed with elements of haozi and xiaodiao( 1982 164). Xiaodiao (Lyric Songs) Xiaodiao (or xiaoqu ) means little tune. There is no acccurate translationfor this term, though it can be translatedas popular song, folk tune, folk song, lyric song, folk melody, etc. (Witzleben 1988 11. ). Comparedto the above-mentionedgenres, the melody of xiaodiao is more r lyrical, the rhythmmore static,and the formalstructure elativelyclear. The text is not improvised as it is in the haozi or shange, and vocables, if used, i areintegrated nto the text.One source (Sung 1979 201-245) divides xiaodiao into the following sub-types lyric songs, humorous songs, childrens songs and customs songs, (i. e. , songs sung at weddings, funerals, etc. ). However, since this paper follows the outline of Jiang Mingduns book, his subdivision system is used. 1. Narrative Songs. The Chinese name for this sub-type, means narrative inging tune. This group includes songs yinchang diao, s that are somewhatfunctionalin nature. The generalorientationis narrative as opposed to lyrical ( i. e. , closer to the spoken language), and their structures are also comparat ively less complex.Examples include childrens songs, lullabies, funeral songs, recitation of poems, vendors songs and customs songs, etc. 3 The Chinese term of this sub-type, yaoqu is 2. Little Songs. difficult to translate. Yaoalone means songhowever, the translation here simply denotes its short length and simple structure. These are songs sung in daily life, but they are not as directly associated with specific This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs 121 functions as are the narrative ongs.Phrasesare more balancedin structure s but are nonetheless short. The vocal range is narrow and the rhythm simple. Examples include laborers songs, womens laments, gameplaying songs, and even some love songs. Love songs, however, are usually assigned to the popularsong sub-typediscussed below. 3. PopularSongs. The Chinese term shidiao can be translatedas seasontune. Althoughthe tran slationpopular ongmay mislead people s to associate these songs with currentpop songs, it nevertheless denotes a sense of popularityamongpeople, and is useful. Songs of this sub-typeare a sung mainly for entertainment t home, in teahouses, in cities, and in rural areas.The singers may be either amateursor professionals. All of the songs discussed until this point are sung by their creators. The popular song sub-type, on the other hand, is generally sung by entertainers. Instrumentalaccompanimentis added to these songs in most cases. Folk songs of this type are clearly the most numerous. Most of the folk songs known to the people of China (and throughoutthe world) belong to this sub-type. They are, in fact, considered to be at the heart of Han Chinese folk songs.The musical form of most popular songs follows the two or four equal phrase structure. In the case of the four-phrase structure,the qi, cheng, zhuan, and he sequenceis followed. Generally,each phraseis set to seven words, exc luding vocables. Many popularsong texts are organized in sets of four, five or twelve stanzasin orderto representthe four seasons, five eventide hour markings and the twelve months, respectively. Each stanza of text begins with a season, an hour marking,or a month. Due to the wide popularity of these songs, the equivalent melody sometimes has different texts, and the same title may have differentmelodies.Two good examples of this sub-type have been presented above as examples of the northernand southernstyles Xiu Hebao (Example 1), and Meng Jiang Nii (Example 2). This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 1 Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 122 LiuyueMoli Example8 (Taiwan) k, A s i wIo 5 65 i 23 5. 6, . O T ii E TET ttft ktf k li A 1 i 5 61 I I I 2 I 3 / 2161 6I I , 6 i I 5 .23253-. 76i5-. iPM I 4 -4 T A AA AC 4 r t/JP) -A aK, Ifr. O A t f P-ai 04 9) v QA A 04 0 oqw 04) HF If) f b a) ? 1F A A -9x 4- A A Ai -.gqjg* P e f 1. Whitejasmine flowers of the one-sixth moon arefair, And theresa young lad whos noble and fine. adorable flowers rarelyever grow all alone Fair lonely lass can be sad, so sad. 2. Whitejasmine flowers of the sixth Moon are fair, Lovely lass has never been found. Flowers andlasses shouldnever be alone Sad is the lovely lass whos never, never found. 3. Whitejasmine flowers of the sixth Moon are fair, Lasses alone are sorryand sad. Lovely flowers should be blooming side by side, When will the lass be found andnever be alone? a (Firstthreeverses translated nd adaptedby Rebecca Schwan. )This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs 123 Example 8, LiuyueMoli (JasmineFlowers in the Sixth Moon)is anothergood example of a popularsong. This piece is from Taiwan and is in the southern style (Jian 1984 50). The text speaks of a girl who compares herself to pretty jas mine flowers, and longs for a lover. The sixth moon refers to the sixth month of the lunar calendar. With the exception of a leap of a 6th (m. 2-3), the melody moves smoothly in conjunct movement with many intervalsof a 3rd.It is in pentatonicscale, zhi mode, the final being gl (sol). The form is in four equal phrases,each having four measures,and it fits the qi, cheng, zhuan,he sequence. The el (mi) pitch at the end of the thirdphraseis tonally far away from gl (sol) at the very end hence, its functionis zhuan(turning). he ending pitch of T the first phrase, d2 (re), on the other hand, is closely related to gl (sol). There are seven words in each half phrase, with some vocables at the end (shown in parentheses). Conclusion We have observed the possibility of seeing Han Chinese folk songs in terms of north-south divisions.From this perspective, it seems that geographicalfactors have influenced the characteristicsof folk songs. We have also seen the classification of folk songs by t ype, involving three majorcategories and their sub-types. It is importantto note thatwhile folk songs such as the xiaodiao (lyric songs) are encountered frequently in China, there are also haozi (work songs) and shange (mountain songs) which are congenericly secret outside of China. It is hoped that this introductionwill lead to more thoroughinvestigationsof this subjectin the Westernworld. This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240.162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 124 Asian Music, Spring/Summer 989 1 Notes 1 This song was transcribed y the authorfrom the recording, Behind b the GreatWall (MonitorRecordsMP 525), Side A, Band 2. The cut fades out graduallywithout a final pitch. It is only assumed to be in the yu mode from the general melodic movement. The same recordingfeatures several good work song examples and an excellent example of the sailing song subtype. 2 m Due to difficultiesin reproduction, usicalexamples takenfrom Jiang Min gdunsbook are recopied by the author.It seems contradictoryto include non-lyrical and functional songs here, but the author follows Jiangs theory. The same contradictory situationexists in the next sub-type. 3 This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Han Kuo-Huang Han Folk Songs 125 Appendix Scales and Modes of Han Chinese Music The Chinese names for pitches, scales and modes are summarized here accordingto the system establishedby Li Yinghai (1981 11). Since he discusses only pentatonic scales, other scales will be omitted. Pitches denote relative ratherthan absolute values.The first note of each series is the name of the mode. Gong Gong Shang JiaoZhi Yu Gong Shang JiaoZhi n Shang n Jiao A -n vu1 U Q This content downloaded from 222. 126. 240. 162 on Wed, 27 Mar 2013 202102 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Yu 1 AsianMusic,Spring/Summer 989 126 Glossary of Selected Terms ChangJiang l pashandiao fR Lbi , qi cheng u GeYoumai shang gong shange Han shidiao haozi , he huaer xiaodiao T- j xiaoqu iU xintianyou HuangHe XiuHebao jiao yaoqu LanHuahua yinchangdiao t7 , M Liuyue oli MengJiangNii j t I0 yu zhi zhuan Authors Names Du Yaxiong MiaoJing Jia.