Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Consumer Behaviour and Sustainability Content

Consumer behavior and Sustainability Content1. INTRODUCTION1.1. BACKGROUNDIn todays harvest-festivalion lines world, single of the most contend tasks for marketers is to sympathise the nodes clouding demeanour. What goes into the humans black box what convey them to switch the finishs of grease ones palms or non purchasing? Is it based on set, views which hold the market today or purely rely on his/her demands, take and wants or modern hostelrys surroundings changes sees? These atomic number 18 totally reflecting consumers get doings. Hence, a proper knowledge of consumers behaviour give be a critical key to gain free-enterprise(a) advantage in the global business purlieu.To better belowstand consumer behaviour and what officiate outs influence it, this name will be centered on three theories ego-importance scheme, consumer stopping point- do and port theory. Literally all three theories relates to the exhibit of buying behaviour which reflecte d by consumers perceptions. ego theory is ourselves performing as a system and creates a posture of what we swear and realise for the outside world. Consumer decision- qualification is a supposition that let us understand how clients choose and restore the decision to buy or non buy in the full parade. mode theory is all endeavorn by the ball clubs innovativeness. Indeed, all three theories argon very(prenominal) strategic in making merchandising strategies ascribable to it is a key to the success of any business.1.2. AIMSThis article will be try outd together with look intoers diary to understand the prospects of consumers behaviour based on researchers protest shop experience. Below ar the aims on this report is focusedThe primary(prenominal) belief of each theory and its influences in the consumer behaviourIntegrate researchers shopping experience and combine theory to analyze real consumer behaviour2. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 surmise OF SELF2.1.1 judgmentIn sim ple words, self-importance is a mirror double of me. It is an inhering view of my cause soulfulnessality. It is considered an epicenter of all the perceptions. It is encapsulated impression of humans personality. The self is a perpetually shifting dynamic system that is more handle the flow of a river in which patterns emerge and disappear than a stable backdrop (Kelso, 1995, p. 1). tally to Mead (1934), the self is non a matter whereas it is exemplification or procedure. As Goffman points out, the self is a sacred figure in this society (1959). egotism is a key factor which is responsible for fulfilling or meeting the most important perceptional energy designive. That is why one critically mentioned the inadvertent redisc bothplacey of self in experi intellectual social psychology (Hales 1 98 1 a). It is nearly impossible to understand self on its own, as it provides philosophical foundation for social-psychological investigation into the self concept. self conce pt theory to a fault refers to theory of self -evaluation. Self concept is a conglomerate of human thoughts virtually its own self. It denotes the totality of the various(prenominal)s thoughts and feelings having generator to himself as an goal (Rosenberg 1979, p. 7). Self is all virtually having our own perceptions about our own selfs. It is an inside view of a human which relates to an intangible world. From (1956) describe self-concept as life being aware of itself. Self concept is not an individuals viewpoint whereas it is made up of multidimensional prospective as actual-self (how a person perceives herself) , ideal-self (how a person would uniform to perceive herself), social self (how a person presents herself to differents), and global-self attitude (self-esteem or self-satisfaction expression, etc.). (Joseph, 1982) Self theorists basically define self-concept as an attitude one holds about or toward ones person (self), this attitude consisting of cognitive compon ents (knowledge, belief), affective components (evaluations), and behavioral-motivational components (predispositions or tendencies to respond). (Ivan, 1971)2.1.2. SELF-THEORY IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOURSelf pic/ harvest-festival image on imperfection/ crop favorencesThe self-concept is basically a cognitive structure which is in many ways associated with virile feelings or behaviours. Consumers deposit prime(a)s are in the connection with self-concept which is cognitive idea attri just nowes about oneself in the attachment to different pits. This gist a consumer whitethorn bribe both(prenominal) harvest-tide as he feels that output enhances himself, and this consumer whitethorn not interchangeable to shop in a veritable lineage due to the reason that he feels the stores products are not as the wish level as he is at or not find out into him in limits if representing his image. (Edward, et,al.1968) And this is the image of self as individuals express themselves by choo sing prints whose personalities are perceived to be congruous with their own personalities. (Ahmad, et.al, 2001)Since large number possess their own personalities, product/ work is assumed to its own personality image as well. This personality is represented in the product/services attributes uniform conventional, posh, tailory, casual etc. The products personality is overly represented into extended functions bid tangible costs, bene views corresponding quality, topographic point, price and performance. These functions are not only the representatives of products/services image but a handle features in other factors like advertising, stomp of the users, other marketing prospects, etc. This type of product image has been interacted with consumers self-concept and consummation a so-called self-image/product image congruity, in which influence the consumers product preference and corrupt intention. (Joseph, 1985)Self-esteem and Self-consistency V.S. Purchase MotivationIf a product image is close to self-image, it will be named as self-congruity art object as if a product image is close to ideal self-image, it will be named as ideal congruity. It is argued that self-congruity (SC) affects procure motivation with the activation and motion of the self-consistency motive. In contrast, ideal congruity (DC) affects purchase motivation through and through the intermediation of the self-esteem motive. (Joseph, 1985) Various self/image congruity illustrations will spring mingled purchase motivations among consumers. If a consumer has graduate(prenominal) self-esteem, he will purchase a positively valued product in distinguish to sustentation his positive self-image. However, he will never purchase certain product which is banishly valued product as he wants to avoid negative self-congruity. Take an automobile as an example, a high self-esteem customer will unendingly buy a good ideal gondola in order to fill up others or societys point of view a s it is important for him to apply the status in his surroundings. He will never buy a car which projects a lower image in comparison to his self-esteem. However, from the perspective of self-consistency, consumer will be always motivated to purchase a product either positive or negative image as it is important that the product itself should be reflecting his/her self-image belief. A table has been illustrated from Joseph (1985) is intelligibly stated the relationship in the purchase motivation and customers own image/personality. quotation (Joseph, 1985)DiscussionsSince the self-concept has been divided into multidimensional perspectives, researchers yield studied a mount on different self-dimensions to find out any relationship to the consumers behaviour. Therefore, it off out the product image/self-image net not always satisfy consumers to purchase certain product under his intention all the time. virtually researchers argued that consumers are not only seeking the product which is close to self-image. Sometimes, consumer does not choose the product which represents him, but rather certain product which is associate to his ideal self-image due to that the relevant self-image dimension is negative. (Laird, 1974) This has brought us into the considerations that social factors, status, environment adopt changed consumers actual purchase into the ideal purchase in order to match up with the reality or society though this is quasi(prenominal) like self-esteem concept in the above part.Researchers stick a bun in the oven as well argued that spate purchase some incitered product is not due to the perception of him, as it might be the cause of post-purchases effects. This means after purchase, consumer has taken its product-image into his self-image to represent himself alternatively of pre-purchase effect. It is the product-image causing the effect instead of self-image cause the purchase of the product.2.2. CONSUMER DECISION MAKING2.2.1. CONCEPTDec ision making for a consumer has never been so complicated since high technology development in the global commercial industry. Similar products within same functions among various brands in retail outlets and shopping malls bring on created more choices for a consumer. And retailers are fitting competitors to each other by using various promotion methods like advertising, direct mails and leaflets of training on goods and services attract customers to purchase. With the development of tuition system, the choice for decision making for a consumer becomes much more complex due to the electronic format on products display. (Steven, 1996)An organization which embraces the marketing concept tries to provide products that satisfy customer wants through coordinated sets of activities that to a fault allow the organization to achieve its goals. Customers satisfaction is the major aim of the marketing concept. (Dibb et al., 1994) It is a wreak in which both the parties are benefited b y exchanging if emptor intend to purchase something of value from the seller, in return seller must get something of value. (Table 1 and Table 2) In order to grow in an efficient way, organizations always try to find out the reasons of why consumers make such purchase decision or why not. The key to drive a companys growth is to understand the elements that motivate into consumers buying decision. Only under such condition can a leader of the company to vigorously arrange the allocation of the resources and supportive activities. (Todd, el,al,2005)Purchase a product involves a decision-making litigate among consumers. consort to Paul (2007), on that point are four manacles related to such decision making process Search for alternatives, rating of alternatives, Purchase, and outcomes of the purchase. The chart below has been a good example of a decision-making of motorists buying gasoline. Source (Paul, 2007)Decision-making process has been for the most part influenced by th e modern communication tools among companies. As from the view of marketers perspective, what is important is not simply understanding the nature of the decision process, but how this influences the individuals responses to advertising communications. (Keith) Hence, a proper understanding of consumers decision-making now is befitting much more and more complex and arouse.2.2.2. CONSUMER DECISION MAKING IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOURConsumer decision stylesBelow is a chart which will formulate both types of influences that motivate consumers buying behaviour tangible and intangible factors.Elements that influence consumers buying decision (Todd, et,al.2005)Researchers also found that peoples choices over the products perceptions are various according to different nations. According to Sproles and Kendall (1986, p. 268), a consumers decision-making style is a rational orientation characterizing a consumers approach to making choices. They developed eight basic elements that influence cons umers buying decision which are quality cognizant, brand conscious, appearance conscious, recreational and hedonistic orientation, price conscious, impulsive and careless tendencies, confused by over-choice and brand loyalty. (Cheng-Lu, et,al, 2004) This means any element or combinations of them among these eight mental characters can be the final decision of a vendees choice opine on what he is focusing on.Howard and Sheth Theory of Buyer demeanour print ModelThis model made by Howard and Sheth has considered various factors into the consumers decision making over a product. In the chart below, there are septette factors shown its relatives to a decision making of a buyer. And under this model, three situations have been tranquil to illustrate buyers decision of purchase over the products brand Routinized rejoinder Behaviour Brand Familiar, Limited conundrum Solving youthful and unacquainted with(predicate) brand in a familiar product class, and Extensive Problem Solv ing unfamiliar brand in unfamiliar product class. chthonic the theory, attitude has been considered as the sum of a number of dimensions. Attitude is like intention which equals to what level of motives of satisfying a customers needs inside of the mind. Source Paul (2007)Rationality BehaviourSome researchers are headlanding that what is the tenability decision making? Does rationality also involve in the buyers purchase decision-making? According to Keith (2007), the assumptions of rationality are that people strive to maximize public-service corporation and have perfect knowledge in the search for the optimum solution. By using the decision rules, a choice has to be made through a set of alternatives considering each alternative with certain criteria singling out the trump out suitable one in the process of a rationality decision making. It is always a process in the search and chooses over the factor of satisfaction.However, the existence of the debate in the midst of rati onality behaviour and emotional conscious is always been argued. It might be possible for a customer that make a rational purchase, but some people would argue that there is certain existence degree of emotional impulses result in the choice among the alternatives. In this situation, decision-making under the consciousness of rationality and emotion sensual have gathered more researchers into the investigation to study consumers decision making in a comparative way. (William, 1998)DiscussionsResearchers find out that various countries decision making style on consumers are different. However, due to the degree of economy of a country, consumers decision making on the products according to the eight characters are not exactly effective since those features are more applicable to those countries where are more developed. Differences in culture and infrastructure of the retailers have also illustrated the various shopping experiences on decision making of the consumers. Take Indias re tailers as an example, most of the shops are in small sizes and family owned. There is not so much space for consumers to compare with various choices inside of the store, and usually consumers buy the products with predetermined total on hand and expected prices to choose from the products in store. People always buy the cloth and put it into tailor shop to do the designs instead of buying the ready ones. Hence, searching for a universal instrument that can describe consumers decision-making styles among a wide domain of cultures is problematic. (Steven, et, al. 1996)Online shopping environment allows marketers to pass on interactive tools for consumers to make decision in a untested regeneration way. Consumers make online shopping decision has changed the traditional way that online interactive tools have allowed consumers to compare products in depth and purchase a quality product in an efficient way. However, this suggests that interactive decision aids have the potence to d rastically transform the way in which consumers search for product information and make purchase decision. (Gerald Valerie, 2000) This also has carried out a future research on the relationship surrounded by consumer decision making and behaviour in the settings of virtual world.Some researchers believe that purchase behaviour includes consumer decision process while others argue that for many purchases, a decision process has never occurred, not even on the first purchase. This is due to several reasons prerequisite purchase, culturally-mandated lifestyles purchases, purchase because of childhood preferences acquirement, purchase of recommendations, or random purchase, etc. (Richard Donald, 1979)2.3. excogitate THEORY2.3.1. CONCEPTFashion in a theoretic term is a culturally endorsed form of expression, in a particular temporal or non-material phenomenon, which is discernible at any given time and changes over time within a social system or sort out of associated individuals. The typical examples to express invent are clothing, dresses and adornment. The popular adoption for means is under the term of clothing, and normally, clothing and way are synonymous terms. Also, room is uttered in other ways between material in nature like furniture and non-material context like art appreciation. According to the researchers, there are two dimensions inside of manner counterfeit object and hammer process. Literally to understand, expressive style object is a specific object such as a dress/a coat, etc. receivable to its special appearance or particular style, it is named as expression object. It represents the fashion at that point of time. In order to identify fashion process, a cycle below has been drawn to better understand the cycle of fashion process. (Charles Lawrence, 1980)3). Early Adoption by Fashion Leaders.4). Diffusion of the fashion through social networks5). Fashion Decline of that object1). Public Acceptance of a potential fashion from o rigination2). Introduction of a fashion constructModern individuals new lifestyles have been translated by the fashion reasons into new fashion concepts in todays society. And such new process has composed the fashion process into another new framework. The fashion process in a new framework has been re-conceptualized as fashion transformation process model. This model, combined with symbol interactions (SI) theory, has built some new predictions regarding the fashion industry. Fashion changes will also change the relationship between individuals (various in society) and society as a whole which is affected by two factors micro-level (individual) and the macro-level (socio-dynamic) forces. (Fletch, et,al. 2002) Fashion, empirically speaking, changes due to the high demands of micro forces in individuals expectations such as fashion designers, innovators or wearers. How cursorily to change fashion is not only depends on those micro-level factors but also on a social trends which a re considered as macro-forces in society such as needs to conform, pressures from others want to be the same or different from others in the society. However brand effect is always affiliated with micro-level subjects who are considered through an individual on how important he values a brand on what level to match with himself in society. afterwards all, all these factors are changing the fashion sector and influence consumers buying behaviour simultaneously. (Appendix 1 Appendix 2)Fast fashion industry has contributed a lot into the consumers buying behaviour in these years. Fashion means designer shops or retailers change all styles in the shop/floors within every two weeks or even shorter period. This has generated a lot of revenue to those retailers by selling low-cost amount of quantities of clothes to various people who prefer to change clothes all the time, especially in the young generations. Shops like Primark, HM, Top shop and New Look are classic retailers workings on fast fashion trend and all of the shops are competitive to each other due to similar fashion in the markets. And people do like shopping in these shops not only of the cheap prices attraction, but also because of the fast changing new styles. (Louise, Grete, 2009)2.3.2. FASHION THEORY IN CONSUMER BEHAIVOURFashion Clothing InvolvementThe fashion clothing affaire has been suggested as one of the main subjects that can confirm purchase behaviour among buyers. It can be matcht through the attached feeling toward consumer-fashion clothing. It is important to learn the fashion clothing interest group among various people as it is the main driver which influence the societys fashion adoption process and involvement is potentially an important firmament as it represents an important symbolic consumption area for consumers. To better understand consumers purchase behaviour, it is a key to know his involvement in fashion clothing. Apart clothing served as a shield of warmth, it is rep resented other functions such as social status for an individual and what he looks like (professional, casual, etc.). Therefore, research on such consumer behaviour is also seen as the major role of marketing companies to understand and provide right choices for the customers. ( OCass, 2000)Involvement is valued as the factor to boost customers motivation and a base to better understand bi-lateral relationships between sellers and buyers in the markets. It is also a fact to drive individuals growth and satisfaction as well as personal goal-oriented behaviour. Hence, it is a vital task for marketers to understand such fashion clothing involvement in the marketing environment.Luxury Brands in Buyers BehaviourThe market for high life branded products has never been so demanded in the coda ten years. The most suitable reason of people behind the luxuriousness brands is because of the fact of social status symbol. Research found out that high life brands are not only purchased by the rich older generations, but also younger generations who are crazily enjoying the purchase behind the brands. In order to target more younger generations into the shopping branding list, marketers spring up to focus on diffusion brand an extension of a brand. This means a new product is introduced under the name of an vivacious brand. (Aaker 1991) A diffusion brand is a step-down brand extension of an existing high life brand in similar product categories, which aims to establish a close connection with the parent brand as a luxury product. (Fernie et al. 1997, Speed 1998) However, the differences can be varied into quality and price to fit more into the market under the same line of a luxury brand such as Armani Exchange under the luxury brand of Armani. This is also to fit into society and adopt more acceptance from the buyers in the society among young generations.Media Celebrity InfluenceConsumers conserve media and celebritys fashion is very common in modern society. mar keting tools put wide presences of new trend fashion into media channels like (advertising on magazines, newspaper) have largely boosted consumers buying behaviour in recent years. And consumers are would love to follow the trends due to its the societys trend. For celebrity, due to her/his nature of job profile, clothes for socializing are only worn few times and their massive presences on media have also brought the newest fashion trend among the followers in young generations, and this at the same time boost similar kindly of products production into a good selling. (Louise Grete, 2009)DiscussionResearchers also argued that SI theory in the fashion process transformation has not fully solved the relationship between two forces. This is expressed as such questions like if a customer is concerning culture factor into the fashion, what will be the process related to a fashion product? What will be the features of the image, product/buyers result in the influence of such process? Are there differences between fashion innovators and fashion followers in terms of tolerance of symbolic ambiguity, need for uniqueness, and other related characteristics?The combination of SI to new fashion process model is not so clear on such situations. early more studies will be focused as well as re-conceptualize the process model related to fashion change.As fast fashion exists, there is more and more concern on the increasing cloth waste which needs to be dealt with. This term is named as disposable fashion. Researchers started to question the relationship between fast fashion and environment sustainability issues. Is such fashion valuable to the market as well as consumers concern? To maintain a good environment, fast fashion properly needs to re-define its own meanings into the society. And this needs those retailers to understand the importance of reducing the volume of textiles waste. (Louise Grete, 2009)2.4. DIARY V.S. THEORIESAccording to researchers own shopping ex perience, his emotional impulse has driven him into that specific product. At the same time, style and design, expected price range have been composed as the factors to motivate researchers buying. And emotional factor has always been the debate between rational behaviour and emotional conscious. According to William (1998), while most consumer researchers have favored a rational information processing model of buyer decision making and behaviour, a few also tried to understand consumers in more emotional and sensual terms. However, the emotional consciousness has never been empirically tested as there is little research work focusing on this. Hence, researchers own experience has challenged that there was certain level degree of emotions factors drive him to purchase the products in the market apart from other factors.Brand preference is another factor motivating purchase behaviour. though there is an emotional feeling inside toward brand preference, it is still brand itself infl uencing researchers buying behaviour as a lot of people like researcher believes that a product under a good brand always contains the feature of quality. Brand preference in here is expressed both in the self-concept and fashion theory. According to researcher, an un-planned purchase in Zara meant two elements in the behaviour fashion style toward and self-concept image. As researcher has seen students clothing similar kind of style in university, he bought the similar kind of products in Zara. From the fashion perspective, this is because of brands orientation while as from the self-concept perspective, researcher has certain feeling that he wants to be fashionable status or tone good in the university. And that is the process from actual self to ideal self images changing process. This means researcher is very caring for the fashion trend in the market.Individuals express themselves by choosing brands whose personalities are perceived to be congruent with their own personalitie s. (Ahmad, et.al, 2001) Researcher also experienced certain brand he does not like due to the unfamiliar and that brand he considered is not fit into his own personality. This once has clearly proved the theory of self that product/brand image will influence consumers behaviour since consumer has his own view of himself in the market although factors like price and quality is also the concerns inside of self-image sometimes.In the course of shopping experience in domiciliate of Fraser, factor like environment of the shopping mall has also driven researcher getting his own products. This could be the design of the mall and emotion consciousness inside of consumers mind which make decisions of buying certain product in specific store/shopping mall. Although cognitive factors may largely account for store selection and for most planned purchases within the store, the environment in the store and the emotional state of consumers may be important determinants of purchase behaviour. (Ela ine Anil, 1997) This can also be the future research result as the combinations of environmental elements and emotional driven forces in the expression of consumers behaviours.3. closeAfter all, there are three findings beyond theories All theories are correlated It has become very important for researchers to cover all the theories while doing market research. As at some point these theories show experience to each other.-Some uncovered factors It has been discovered most situations in consumer behaviours can be explained related to the theory mode. But there are still some other factors (environment in the store/emotional consciousness) needs to be researched in the future to carry out a better understanding on consumers behaviour. Brand preferences It has been spoken in all three theories this means that people would like to purchase brands all the time and brand power is massive and beyond considerations. That is why fashion is about brand, personality is about brand and dec ision-making is about brand.The topic of consumers behaviour will always remain an interesting topic for marketers. Marketers are still not able to understand the of import processing unit of human fully, where all the analysis takes place about purchasing a product or service. It needs a invariant research and deep understanding of human mental map. Its a precept Nothing is permanent in this world same applies to human buying behaviour. Demand for a change in human nature will always disappoint researchers. The processing in the black box is like phase, one phase finishes another comes with different influencing factors.REFERENCES A. Cholachatpinyo, I. Padgett, M. Crocker B. 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