Friday, March 22, 2019
Impact of cumputers on business and education :: essays research papers
The history of the modern computing machine age is a brief one. It has been about 50 years since the for the first time operational computer was put into example the MARK 1 in 1944 at Harvard and ENIAC in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. Early use of computers in schooling was primarily found in mathematics, science and engineering as a mathematical problem-solving tool, replacing the slide rule and thus permitting students to deal more(prenominal) directly with problems of a type and size most likely to be encountered in the real world.6In 1959, at the University of Illinois, Donald Bitier began PLATO, the first, large-scale project for the use of computers in education. The several(prenominal) thousand-terminal system served undergraduate education as tumefy as elementary school reading, a community college in Urbana, and several campuses in Chicago.7 Thus, the era of computers in education is little more than 35 years old.8The Early PioneersAt Dartmouth, in 1963, Joh n Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz modify the role of computers in education from primarily a research legal action to an academic one. They did not like the idea that students had to stand in yen lines with punch cards for batch processing. So they adopted the recently demonstrate concept of time-sharing that allowed many students to interact directly with the computer. The university developed the time-shared system and expand it into a regional computing center for colleges and schools.9 At the time, most programs were written in machine language or FORTRAN. Kemeny and Kurtz developed a new, easy-to-use language, called BASIC. It beam rapidly and was used for the creation of computer-based instructional materials for a wide mutation of subjects and for all levels of education.RAPID GROWTH OF COMPUTER-BASED EDUCATIONIn the late 1960s, in order to make nettle to computers widely available, the National Science ground (NSF) supported the development of 30 regional computing ne 2rks, which included ccc institutions of higher education and some secondary schools. By 1974, over two million students used computers in their classes. In 1963, only 1% of the races secondary schools used computers for instructional purposes. By 1975, 55% of the schools had access and 23% were using computers primarily for instruction.131975 a remarkable thing happened, the political economy that once favored large, time-shared systems shifted to low-cost microcomputers and the personal computer revolution began.By the late seventies personal computers were everywhere -- at the office, the schoolroom, the home, and in laboratories and libraries.