Friday, March 8, 2019

Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation of Ict

qF diddleors Affecting the achieverful Implementation of ICT Projects in Government David Gichoya, seek School of Informatics, Loughborough University, UK D. M. emailprotected ac. uk Abstr snatch A judicature is a huge and multiplex plaque, whose operations and strategical focalize could be greatly enhanced by the intumesce focussed application of breeding and Communication Technologies (ICT) to take over advancements in productivity, management effectiveness and ultimately, the fibre of services offered to citizens. speckle the benefits of ICT in administration send awaynot be dis geted, there argon some(prenominal) concerns about its advantage as well as the strategies to be adoptive in death penalty of systems in variant countries. In this wall write up, the characteristic ch altogetherenges that modernise nations face, which make ICT execution in judicature fail to succeed ar identified and synthesised. The paper presents answers of literature fresh en of slipperiness studies from both unquestionable and exploitation countries and front studies grounded in the Kenya e-Government reality.The secern work outs argon identified, synthesised and categorised under leafy vegetable broad categories. This results in a rich picture of ICT execution of instrument produce that champions to identify accomplishable solutions. A descriptive framework for categorising mention factors in ICT carrying out in giving medication illustrated with references to the literature is proposed. The input variables be categorised into factors for victory (drivers and enablers), and factors for sorrow (barriers and inhibitors). The payoff variables atomic number 18 categorized into organisational and expert benefits. Finally, an save for triumph is proposed.This deed takes suggestions for increase the impact of factors for succeeder while reducing the impact of factors for ruin and phthisis of available good put on. Keywords Gove rnment informatics, ICT ranges slaying, e-Government, information system, ICT success and reverse utilise to various phenomena (Beynon-Davies 2002). Following this definition of informatics, regime informatics basis be defined as the application of information, information systems and information applied science indoors establishment. This therefore includes application of eGovernment which is earlier to do with making the delivery of establishment services more(prenominal) fficient (Bannister, Remenyi 2005). 1. Background With the emergence of information and discourse technologies (ICTs), and eGovernment, it is possible to improve efficiency and effectiveness of internal administration inside giving medication and to re-locate government service from government offices to locations closer to the citizens. Examples of such locations are cyber coffee shop, telecenters or a personal figurer at home or office. bit the benefits of ICT in government rumpnot be disputed, there are several concerns about its success as well as the strategies to be adopted in implementation of systems in various ountries. This paper therefore presents the findings of a literature analyze, knowledge acquired from reviewed case studies from exploitation countries and a preliminary examine grounded on Kenyan government. The paper considers the characteristic challenges that maturation nations face, which make ICT implementation in government fail to succeed. A descriptive framework for categorising key factors in ICT implementation in government and an action for success are proposed. The action for success is presented as response to situation specific challenges. In support of government informatics, Tapscott (1995, p. v) argues that ICT ca put ons a paradigm shift introducing the age of interlock intelligence, reinventing businesses, governments and individuals. Ndou (2004, p. 2) quoting Kaufman (1977) observes, the traditionalistic bureaucratic paradigm, charac terised by internal productive efficiency, operable rationality, surgical incisionalisation, hierarchical control and ruleestablish management is being replaced by competitive, knowledge based requirements, such as flexibility, network organisation, vertical/horizontal integration, innovative entrepreneurship, organisational learning, focal ratio up in service delivery, and a customer driven trategy, which accent coordinated network create, external collaboration and customer services all of which are supported by ICT. Informatics is a bridging discipline that is fundamentally interested in the application of information, information engineering and information systems within organisations. Informatics is therefore the study of information, information systems and information technology ISSN 1479-439X 1. 1 e-Governments initiatives fit to Kaul and Odedra (1991) governments around the world seduce been engaged in the plow of implementing a wide 175 Academic Conferences Ltd Re ference this paper asGichoya D (2005) Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation of ICT Projects in Government The electronic daybook of e-Government Volume 3 Issue 4, pp 175-184, available online at www. ejeg. com electronic Journal of e-Government Volume 3 Issue 4 2005 (175-184) range of (ICT) applications. Countries redeem been classified by the United Nations concord to their data processor Industry teaching Potential (CIPD) as advanced or less developed Mgaya (1999). go include, for example, the United States, Canada, West European countries and Japan less developed include for example Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, Kenya and Bulgaria.For all countries, uptake of ICTs for government reinvention is increasing not sole(prenominal) in investment save excessively in toll of profile with a number of high-profile initiatives having been launched during the mid-nineties. According to Heeks and Davies (2000), this reinvention has taken place especially in the advan ced countries. Western countries are convinced that the information society leave al maven result in economic and social benefits (Audenhove 2000). The author quoting Organisation for frugal Cooperation and Development, notes that information bags are expected to stimulate economic growth, increase productivity, reate jobs, and improve on the bore of life. Heeks (2002) observes that there is a big difference mingled with ICT implementation and uptake in the midst of developed and developing countries. However, Westrup (2002) observes that similarities shag in any case be expected. These similarities include funds which are never sufficient, bureaucracy and exploiter involve. The difference is how problems are addressed in different countries. It can be argued that, with their adequate imagings and advanced technology, the Western countries return an easier way of implementing ICT bem lend oneselfs than DCs. Most developing countries are characterised by limited ompute r applications in the public sector, inadequate basis and shortage of skilled manpower (Odedra 1993). Odedra (1993, p. 9) notes that this situation exists not merely referable to lack of pecuniary resources, but largely due to lack of coordination at different levels in making effective use of the technology. This uncoordinated efforts can still result in duplication if each department implements its own ICT toils without due regard to compatibility within the government. technical and support module and facilities including buildings. So far, the Government selective information applied science Investment and counselling exemplar is onnecting all ministries to the Internet under the Executive Network (Limo 2003). The government is also connecting the ministries to run integrated information systems for example the Integrated Financial instruction entropy System (IFMIS) and the Integrated Personnel and Pensions Database (IPPD). While developing countries whitethorn dedi cate similar characteristics, the Kenyan setting presents various challenges that touch the winning implementation of ICT estimates. Characteristics that define Kenyan ICT environment Most ICT protrusions are ab initio donor funded. close to donations are made without prior consultation or carrying out a needs nalysis by the recipient organization working(a)/running costs are met by the government. Funding (capital and human resource requirements) ends with the roll phase. The budgets for ICT are inadequate but rising. A lack of ICT policies and overlook plans to guide investment. To the extent that, with a number donors funding ICT, there have been multiple investments for the same product due to lack of coordination. A focus on ICT applications that support traditional administrative and fermental transactions quite a than on effective information processing and distribution within and without government epartments Unstable ICT resources. This paper therefore he lps to answer the following questions 1. What critical factors or variables can be identified as important in foothold of their effect on ICT project implementation in government? 2. atomic number 18 there common variables and can the variables be synthesised and categorised under common broad categories for specific action to be taken? 3. Does the resulting compendium of the entropy lead to a framework that enables analysis and understanding of the ICT implementation experience in Kenya and can it help to identify problems and solutions? 4. Does this in turn result in a framework hat can be utilize to guide ICT 2. ICT Implementation in Government of Kenya Over the last quintuple years, the Kenyan government has initiated some capital investment towards set up and installation of ICT cornerstone. Funding for these investments is gived through partnerships between the government and development partners. The exotic funding parting constitutes the largest percentage of this investment in terms of technology. The government contribution is usually in the form of www. ejeg. com 176 Academic Conferences Ltd David Gichoya implementation in Kenya and other developing countries? 5. Does the resulting framework build on revious frameworks either in terms of its applicability to real life situations, its inclusive nature, its cohesiveness, and its ability to pay back questions for further look into? The enquiry strategy envisaged is close to one utilise by Doherty, King et al. (1998), since the objectives are partly confirmatory but primarily exploratory. The strategy involves use of in-depth interviews, observation and documentary review. This approach leave alones new insights, grounded in the Kenya e-Government reality, into factors that contribute to the success or harm of ICT projects. It also shows the relationship between the doption of good design during implementation and the resultant level of success attributed to the functional systems. The methodology envisaged therefore has two dimensions, one theoretically based on ICT literature and the other analytically based on case studies. This paper therefore includes knowledge acquired from a literature review and a preliminary investigation grounded in Kenya. focus. Planning projects Implementation of ICT A familiar motto says, if you cannot plan it, you do not do it. Another maxim says, I never planned to fail, I just failed to plan. Planning spans a whole project period. It begins once the roject readiness activities determine the organizations strategy and identifies the ICT projects. Within the framework of a some fixed constraints, project plans evolve with the lifecycle. The constraints are measure and money so each project has a clear deadline and a tight budget. According to Moran (1998, p. 39), plans fall into one of the two categories quite a little without substance and a budget without vision. The identified problems of vision without substance are vaguene ss of future vision, lack of institutional vision, current line and time. Identified issues of budget without vision are questions as to what roblem is being solved, what are the priorities and definition of the roles and responsibilities. With ICT projects being advocated for and financed by donors, budget without vision is worryly to be the project plan. Maciaszek (2001, p. 10) has suggested some planning amazes and methods for ICT implementation. Further, Aineruhanga (2004) observes that planning as a prick can help in reducing waste by identifying the pre-requites conditions for victorious ICT implementation rather than rushing into a complex e-Government strategy without having original finalized a national ICT polity. Figure 1 presents a research framework onstructed from these preliminary studies. The framework specifies the area of research interest and shows how ICT implementation success affects ICT facilities quality and information system quality. In turn ICT faci lities quality and information systems quality affect the perceived benefits. An ICT project implementation can only be perceived to have succeeded if the perceived benefits are realised. ICT facilities quality can be assessed aft(prenominal) careful evaluation of the infrastructure to determine technical functionality. For example if the facilities were for networking different departments, the question whitethorn be hether this has been achieved successfully. This ordain involve a technical and user evaluation of the functional communication systems. discipline system quality can only be find by evaluating the information they generate. For example if the information is for budgeting figures, the question might be whether the information system can generate accurate and timely financial information. Three reasons are identified for scurvy project planning in organisations. These are risk management had not been addressed, business systems had not been confirm to the full an d lack of involvement from management Knott andDawson (1999). These can be taken as the major reasons but are not exhaustive. This is due to the kind of the implementation environments. Also, as noted by Bannister and Remenyi (2000), p. 1), when it comes to complex decisions, managers lots rely on methods which do not fall within the traditional boundaries of so-called rational decision making. It is observed that managers sometimes base decisions on acts of faith, gut instinct or blind faith (referred to as strategic insight). As noted by Harindranath (1993), though developing countries commit a sizable amount of economic resources to ICT, for hem to reap maximum benefits, ICT needs careful planning and coordination prior to implementation and use otherwise psychometric test and error methods of implementation that characterise just about government ICT applications will only succeed in the wastage of scarce resources Perceived benefits are the end products that can be employ to judge the success of the whole system. If the perceived benefits like easier communication, networking, and system integration, timely, relevant, complete and useful information are not realised, so the system will be perceived to have failed. Attributes of each component are shown for clarity and www. ejeg. com nd 177 ISSN 1479-439X Electronic Journal of e-Government Volume 3 Issue 4 2005 (175-184) Figure 1 Research framework 1998, Heeks 2002, Mgaya 1999). However, a careful review of reasons for failure identifies other factors whose presence or absence determines success or failure of projects. To begin with, the researcher looks at the takings variables which are the benefits to be achieved if the initiative succeeds. The purpose of this is to clarify the goal of ICT projects. These goals may form a key element to the planning process as exposit above. Achievement of these goals helps to determine how to classify ICT projects. In ddition, perceptions of, and reasons for I CT failure are reviewed and these helps to identify possible key variables. 3. ICT performance evaluation ICT evaluation can be defined as establishing by quantitative, and/or qualitative methods the grade of the ICT to the organisation Khalifa et al. (2004). Performance cannot be judged as good or inquisitive without the successful implementation of the project. In this paper, the technical or operational implementation of ICT infrastructure is of interest. Evaluating ICT projects can be quite problematic and can sometimes be quite subjective (Heeks 2002, Currie 1995, Bannister, Remenyi 2004, Irani 002, DeLone and McLean 2002, Bannister and Remenyi 2000) and there is no genius ICT evaluation method that can be applied to all situations (Khalifa et al. 2004). Currie (1995) justifies this personate victimization various case studies drawn from businesses in various developed countries while Heeks (2002) observes that evaluation is subjective and can depend on wad including time. valuation leads to the determination of success or failure of an ICT project. 4. 1 rig variables 4. ICT and IS success and failure Many benefits can be achieved using ICT in government. However, a word of caution given bySaul and Zulu (1994) is in order. The authors see ICT as a intend to an end and not an end in itself. The think of of ICT lies in its ability to assist the government in finding solutions to its problems. ICT disbursal can only be justified if there are benefits accruing to it and not adopting it for its own sake. Literature shows that planning and management of ICT projects has a very poor record in developing countries (Galliers et al. 1998, Qureshi The benefits are listed below Cost drop-off Quality of service delivery www. ejeg. com 178 Academic Conferences Ltd David Gichoya 5. Factors for ICT success and failureIncreasing capacity of government amend decision making Transparency Improved efficiency Improved get at to information Other technolog ical benefits for example cheaper and efficient and access to large storage capacities within larger and more advanced computers While discussing factors for success and failure, it is necessary to clarify the opposite effect of intimately factors. This way if the presence of a factor encourages success, the lack of it encourages failure (examples are, proper infrastructure and well motivated mental faculty). The converse is true such that if presence of a factor causes failure, its bsence will cause success (examples are bureaucracy, poor project and change management). 4. 2 Categorisation of ICT projects failure Broadly, the assessment of worth of an ICT take a chance focus on considerations of the success and failure of IS. The issue of ICT failure can be analyzed by assuming that learning from IS failures will provide us with important lessons for formulating successful strategies for the planning, development, implementation and management of information systems. While disc ussing dimensions of ICT failure, Beynon-Davies (2002, p. 201) considers both the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the informatics model.The horizontal dimension is express in terms of the difference between development failure and use failure. The vertical dimension is expressed in terms of failure at the level of ICT systems, IS projects, or organization, or at the level of the external environment. vi types of IS failure is identified as follows Technical failure Project failure Organizational failure Environmental failure Developmental failure expenditure failure Beynon-Davies supports the argument with several case studies and quotes other models for IS failure put forward by Lyytinen & Hirschheim (1987). 5. 1 Factors for successFactors for success are those positions whose presence or absence determines the success of an ICT project. They can be drivers or enablers as described by (Moran 1998, Riley 2000, Doherty et al. 1998, Heeks 2003b, Mugonyi 2003, Heeks 200 4, Khaled 2003). . Their absence can cause failure and their presence can cause success. Drivers are the factors that encourage or reinforce the successful implementation of ICT projects. Some of these are listed below Vision and strategy Government support External pressure and donor support Rising consumer expectations Technological change, modernization, and globalizationEnablers are the active elements present in society, which help overcome the potential barriers. Some of these are listed below Effective project, coordination and change management Good practice 5. 2 Factors for failure The factors for failure are those occurrences that constraint proper/ smoothen implementation of ICT projects in government. These can either be barriers or inhibitors as described by (Khaled 2003, Gakunu 2004, Aineruhanga 2004, Heeks 2003a, Ndou 2004, Bhatnagar 2003, Saul and Zulu 1994). ICT success or failure in developing countries can be categorized into three depending on the decimal point of success (Heeks 2002).First, is the total failure of an initiative never implemented or in which a new system was implemented but in a flash abandoned. Second is partial failure of an initiative, in which major goals are unattained or in which there are significant undesirable outcomes. Associated with partial failure is the sustainability failure where an initiative offshoot succeeds but is then abandoned after a year or so. The last is success of an initiative where most stakeholders attain their major goals and do not experience undesirable outcomes. For the purpose of this paper, Heeks categorisation is more relevant since it can be sed to categorise the few projects implemented by the Kenyan government using the above measure as the case may be. www. ejeg. com Barriers can be considered as those occurrences that abash ICT implementation. Some of these factors for failure are listed below. Infrastructure Finance Poor selective information systems and lack of compa tibility Skilled force-out leading styles, culture, and bureaucracy Attitudes 179 ISSN 1479-439X Electronic Journal of e-Government Volume 3 Issue 4 2005 (175-184) Inhibitors do not unavoidably prevent the implementation of ICT projects but they do prevent advancement and conquer successful mplementation and sustainability. Some of these factors for failure are listed below. User needs technology Cordination ICT policy Transfer of ICT idolisers Donor push far as they help in shaping the process of identifying the areas of weaknesses in ICT implementation in government. In this paper, functionality is considered to depend on ICT systems and usability and utility are crucial in ascertain stakeholder satisfaction, which increases stakeholder acceptance, and stiffens resistance to adoption. 7. Action plan for success The dress hat way to achieve maximum benefit for ICT implementation is to have all the factors for uccess with no occurrence of the factors for failure. Ho wever, in real world that is not the case. Given such a situation, an action to increase the chances of success is required. Clockwork (2004) suggests the following framework for implementing e-Government projects. 6. Previous models for ICT project success Several models for assessing success, failure and the way forward for ICT systems in oecumenic DeLone and McLean (2002) and developing countries Heeks (2002) have been suggested. These and other models are considered relevant to this paper. The model proposed by DeLone and McLean (1992, p. 87) was later overlaid on a impler scheme of functionality, usability and utility by Beynon-Davies (2002). This overlaid model introduces the idea of functionality and usability, which are considered relevant to ICT implementation. Beynon-Davies argues that, the worth of an IS will be obdurate in the three contexts of functionality, usability and utility. The framework consists of five stages Examine national e-Readiness light upon and pri oritize themes Develop a course of action Apply to post groups Implement solutions the final stage of the framework, is to implement the solutions. A key factor in this implementation is to ensure that the rganization is ready and in place to agnise the new activities and corresponding changes. Some ICT best practices that have been harvested from a review of successful applications are suggested by Clockwork. Given their simple situation, developing countries are in a position to make effective and speedy use of such best practices for their own purposes. This can be viewed from an angle of technology leapfrog which can be achieved through appropriate technology impart (Ifinedo 2005). DeLone and McLean (2002, p. 2) acknowledged the difficulty in defining information system success and noted that different researchers ddress different aspects of success, making comparisons difficult and the prospect of building a cumulative tradition for I/S research besides elusive. The IT POSMO model seeks to explain the high rates of failures of information systems in developing countries Heeks (2002). This model assumes the objectiveers of IS are remote which means their contextual inscriptions are liable(predicate) to be significantly different from user actuality. It assumes the designers come from developed countries or have been trained in developed countries and their knowledge of the local anaesthetic mess is at variance with the local reality.This model can be utilise in explaining some of the reasons as to why implementation of ICT in Kenyan government fails. However, the interest of the paper is on the whole of the ICT implementation which views IS as a passenger. The suggested best practices in ICT are 1. Do not dishonor the complex environment in which ICT programs evolve. ICT projects are too often believed to have a technology focus. 2. Be sure to select a project that is expected to demonstrate the greatest benefit for your target group. 3. Gove rnment staff should be re-skilled to anticipate the changes that accompany an ICT structure and new roles 4.Identify the right technologies. 5. depict a decision on how an organizational process fits your technology. 6. Strong program and project management is essential to develop and implement successful ICT solutions. The first two models deal with ICT/IS in general but Heeks model is for ICT/IS implementation in government and especially in developing countries. All these models act as useful guides in highlighting some of the key variables that affect ICT success. They are considered in this paper as www. ejeg. com 180 Academic Conferences Ltd David Gichoya 7. Do not underestimate the total cost of ownership (TCO) of an ICT project.The above best practices might not be sufficient but they can act as a basis for further research. In this paper, the best practices have been analyzed but their adoption in Kenya is not clear at this early stage of e-Government implementation. proph ylactic against failure and should be adopted more widely. 7. 3 Local improvisations According to Heeks (2002), local improvisation is done to reduce actuality-reality gaps. This can be through hybrids that recognize local capacities and improve success rates. However, Heeks notes that schemes to develop these hybrids in the DCs are virtually nonexistent thus hampering improvisation.Participative approaches to implementation e. g. group working and end-user involvement have to be carefully considered since most have been developed for the industrialized countries. Examples of how these participative IS techniques were a failure, are the case of Mexicos General Hospital and an enduser development initiative for health IS in confederation Africa (Heeks 2002). The implementations failed because of the large gap between design assumptions and requirements and actuality of organizations into which ICT was introduced. The conclusion drawn is that these implementations failed because ther e was too large a gap between he design assumptions and requirements of those techniques and the actuality of organizations into which they were introduced and not necessarily because of participative design is necessarily wrong. 7. 1 Conducting e-Readiness assessment In this paper, e-Readiness refers to the government ability to take advantage of the ICTs as a preparedness to enhance and improve its administrative functions. e-Readiness has several components, including telecommunications infrastructure, human resources, and legal and policy framework. e-Readiness assessment suggested above can be conducted on Data systems infrastructure Legal infrastructure Institutional infrastructure (standardization of various departmental means of communication and the technology that is used) Human infrastructure Technological infrastructure Leadership and strategic thinking readiness (short, medium and long term plans by specific government ministries) In this regard, e-Readiness asses sment can be used as an information-gathering mechanism for governments as they plan their strategies for ICT implementation. It can help the project team to better understand what impediments to ICT implementation exist and what initiatives are indispensable to overcome them. . A descriptive conceptual framework for developing countries context A framework for mapping the knowledge gained from both the literature and the case studies is given in figure 3. The framework gives a pictorial deputation of a conceptual format of the literature for representational purpose. Input variables are all those factors considered as inputs to an ICT project. Some of these factors though necessary might be absent and are considered to be factors for failure. Other factors are present but their presence becomes obstacles to success. These are categorised as factors for failure. 7. 2 Design divisibilityDivisibility of local design can decrease chances of failure as explained by Heeks using the Vol ta River Authority (Ghana) as an example (Heeks 2002, p. 109). Divisibility is achieved by modularity (supporting one business function at a time by allowing separation of, for example, accounting and personnel functions), incrementalism (providing stepped levels of support for business functions by allowing separation of, for example, clerical and management support). In Kenya this has been achieved to some extent. Both the personnel and accounting functions are computerised with varying degrees of success within the ministries.This has been done through the implementation of Integrated Financial Management reading System (IFMIS) and the Integrated Personnel and Pensions Database IPPD). Heeks (2002) observes that design divisibility is therefore a www. ejeg. com The input variables that act as the foundation of the ICT project and are considered as main ingredients to ensure the success of the project are referred to as drivers or prerequisites while those variables that encourage success are referred to as enablers or essentials. As ICT projects are implemented, it is necessary to map the input variables to assess where action should e taken. Output variables are represented as either organisational or technological benefits. The 181 ISSN 1479-439X Electronic Journal of e-Government Volume 3 Issue 4 2005 (175-184) organisational benefits are the benefits that accrue to the organisation. Technological benefits may not necessarily accrue to the organisation but are regarded as benefits resulting from implementation of the technology. These benefits can be enjoyed by individuals, the organisation and the public. situation specific action. Input and output variables are considered as far as they affect the success and failure of ICT implementation.The framework takes consciousness of broad premises (benefits, challenges and impact) of the Kenyan perspectives discussed in this paper and those observed by (Avgerou and Walsham 2000, Berleur and Drumm 2003, Heeks 2002) for both research and action. Lastly the framework shows the response which is presented as action for success. The response proposed has three characteristics. First, it analyses the situation, second, it looks at the various factors contributing to success and/or failure and finally an action for success to a In the response, action is taken to increase the chances of project success by reducing the mpact of the factors for failure and increasing the strength of the factors for success. Drivers (Prerequis ites) Factor for s uccess Input variables 1. Fina nce 2. Infrastruc ture 3. Attitudes 4. Coordination 5. scheme 6. Skills 7. O thers E nablers (Essentia ls ) Action plan for s ucce ss 1. Conduct an e-readiness assess ment 2. Strategy and Policy a decla ratio n b y the government stating goals and objectives by appointing a board for co-coordinating ICT impleme ntation 3. Local improvisation inc lud ing design divisibility 4. progress public-private partne rs hip to crea te sustainable ICT programs 5. O thersResponse O utput varia ble s 1. Organis ational be ne fits Improved efficienc y Improved access to information Tra nsparency 2. Te chnological be ne fits Cheaper and efficie nt communication Large stora ge Real time process ing Barriers Facto rs for Failure Inhibitors Figure 3 Descriptive framework or region within which their work is located (Avgerou and Walsham 2000). As the literature reviewed suggests, developing countries are still far behind in implementing e-Government and it is hoped that successful implementation of ICT projects will act as a strong foundation for eGovernment initiatives. 9. ConclusionTo foregather the development needs of ICT projects, those involved in the design, implementation and management of IT-related projects and systems in the developing countries must improve their capacity to address the specific contextual characteristics of the organisation, sector, country www. ejeg. com 182 Academic Conferences Lt d David Gichoya cooperation from development partners on ICT projects To produce guidelines that the governments can use to help define their needs and agendas with regard to government ICT implementation and use Provide a basis for assessing good practice for ICT implementation in government Contribute to the body of knowledge on ICT implementation According to Doherty et al (1998), the factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of informatics projects have received considerable attention in the schoolman literature. Doherty et al (1998, p. 3) summarised studies on success factors and current research objectives involving empirical studies. afterlife papers will include the findings of cases studies done in 9 ministries of the Kenyan government. Therefore, this further research will identify and categorise the factors influencing ICT implementation according to their degree of influence in Kenya and suggest ossible actions. In this paper, the factors affect ing ICT implementation have been categorised into factors for success and factors for failure. These have been further categorized as either drivers, enablers, barriers or inhibitors. The paper does not classify the factors in terms of their influence. However, vision and strategy and government support are considered important for success while lack of funds and poor infrastructure are considered as major factors for failure. As many arguments for ICT planning prove, ICT project implementation is a complex exercise and more research is needed to identify challenges, ood practice and solutions for successful implementation. This paper analyses and syntheses both all information gathered to develop a framework that hopefully can be used during ICT infrastructural planning and implementation in developing countries. The response framework discussed in this paper is expected to be used to Provide a basis on which to analyze and specify international support and References Aineruhanga, M. , 2004. Focus on the Kenya ICT Week. Chakula Newsletter, (9),. Audenhove, L. V. , 2000. education and communication technology policy in Africa A critical analysis of rhetoric and practice.In C. AVGEROU and G. WALSHAM, eds, Burlington, USA Ashgate Publishing company, pp. 277-290. Avgerou, C. and Walsham, G. , 2000. Introduction IT in developing countries. In C. AVGEROU and G. 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