Monday, February 25, 2019

Intolerance in Nigeria Essay

ABSTRACT This overboldsprint examines the relationship between worship and sustainable maturation, as comfortably as the division of Nigerian intellectuals in ameliorating spiritual crisis in the country. morality, as a system of faith is establish on belief in the existence of a particular God or gods, to close to issue, influences or contributes in developing and coordinating the mirror image of the capacities possible in gracious nature for the progress of the society. forevery the elements that made up the resources originating from gracious ar ex twingeed in their attains, behaviour and everyday activities, either in positive and constructive ways, or in a disconfirming and destructive ways, especially with respect to their immanent power to generate cherish by leveraging some otherwise employment variables for economical addition and organic evolution. data-based results obtained, using descriptive analysis approach, indicate that faith plays an important component in shaping the moral and kind values necessary for phylogenesis. found on these findings, some recommendations be offered which include Re-examine education policies in the light of its region to man-to-man gain and to bring active wakeless(prenominal) structural changes in society, changes which are necessary for the creation of a just, peaceful, and harmonized environment, hence teachers and other intellectuals must be a model of nobility, selfactualization and discipline, since hefty character is ultimately more(prenominal) important than intellectual brilliance.. Keywords Religion, Economic gain, Amelioration, gross profit and Intellectuals.INTRODUCTION A theology notify be broadly draw as a set of common belief and practices primarily held by a group of tribe. Oxford Learner Dictionary described faith as a system of faith that is based on belief in the existence of a particular God or gods. According to Oke, Oloruntimehin and Akinola (1 996), it is generally accepted by genial scientists that slews spectral beliefs and their brotherly organizations are closely interrelated. They quoted Emile, as noted that devotion is a social artifact symbolizing what a society considers consecrated and the to the highest degree sacred thing to any society is the society itself.In view of this, religion provides an organized picture of the universe and establishes a more or less orderly relationship between man and his surroundings. Early economists and other researchers get hold of paid little attention to any link between religion and economic development, rather it is seen as something personal between man and his God. The previous(predicate) relationship between religion and economic was schematic by Marx, who was of the intuitive feeling that the strength of an economy would influenced a religion or belief. However, the like of goop Weber, an eminent sociologist of early 20th century was of contra opinion.According to him, the source of the growth of the western economy is religion, especially the reformation of protestant and its doctrine about 40 Religion and Economic Development the intention of Nigerian Intellectuals Saheed, Zakaree S. and Alofun, G. O. O. easiness and moral responsibility to work (Skousen, 2007). Weber Marx (1930), believe that capitalism originated from sacred ideals and not historical materialism. Specifically, the protestant reformation teachings changed the western culture, and led to the cabbage of capitalism, which in turn led to the growth and development of their economy.Islam as a religion also played a positive role in the development of the Arab society and transformed it to such a remarkable extent that it not only overcame its own handicaps but also brought about a revolutionary change in the societies that came under its influence (Charpra, 1998). Barro and McCleary (2003) suggested that higher evaluate of ghostlike beliefs stimulate growth because t hey succor to sustain the aspect of individual behaviour that enhances productivity. The higher number of church or mosque attention, for instance, tends to depressed growth because it signifies a greater use of esources including land, edifices and other capital, by the spectral sector. However, that prohibition of growth is tempered by the extent to which church or mosque attendance leads to greater religion beliefs, which in turn encourages economic growth. In Nigeria, tralatitious communities are essentially religious. In these communities, religion is kinship based because it governs the stacks lineage or family relationships it governs the doctrine of collective responsibility and forms the bottom of the family, which in turn is the basic unit of social control.Indeed, religion is so important in the society as a form of social control because of tidy sums adherence to religion, whether traditional, Christian or Islam (Ikporukpo, 2001), which are the make dod religio ns in Nigeria, though the endure two are more pronounced. Christianity and Islam, especially possess a great influence on the daily lives of Nigerians, and plays a crucial role in the socio-political and economic development.According to Nwite and Wilson (2010), churches in Nigeria has contributed immensely to the economic development of the country through investment in different sectors of the economy like real e res publica, capital market, shopping mixed and schools. The essence of economic and human development embodied health, for which biography antepast is taken as a reasonable gauge knowledge, which is expressed as a combi population of literacy rates and average years of schoolings and per capital income (Lynn, 2001). whatsoever effort put forward towards the development of these find out factors would amount to move the economy towards development. Given the foregoing, the paper proposes to critically examine/analyses i. The contribution of religion to the educati on sector in Nigeria. ii. The role of religion in the development of health sector in Nigeria. iii. The role of religion towards creation of caper opportunities in Nigeria. iv. The role of religion and Nigerian Intellectuals in socio-ethnic crisis in Nigeria.To this end, the paper is organized into five sections. Following this introduction is section II, which focuses on abstract issues. Section III discusses the role of religion on economic development in Nigeria. Section IV analyses the role of religion on socio-ethnic crisis in Nigeria, while section V summarises the findings and offer policy recommendation. 41 diary of Social Science and Public constitution muckle 3, December 2011 CONCEPTIONS OF phylogenesis There are different conceptions of development.First, it could be viewed as the development of the take care in which case the humanity of man is no longer oppress to nature, but has transcended the confines of nature to progressively understand the whole of the ma nkind in order to be able to develop from it an environment which is most sui prorogue for him. Moreso, economic development means sustained and sustainable growth per capita income, accompanied by diversification of production, reduction in absolute poverty, and expanding economic opportunities for all citizens (Lynn, 2003).The definition implies an economic growth which can be hold over a long period of time. Moreso it requires diversification of economic activities so that the nation can be producing variety of goods and services, with the economy gradually progressing from primary, to lowly and then to tertiary economy. This should be able to create an expanding opportunities for people to carry a choice of work and earn income through which they can rectify their lives and able to participate in the social life of the company.Most importantly, on that point should be reduction in the level of absolute poverty in the country. The conception of development also connote grow th with changes, which usually demands significant structural transformation within a country, and that includes the reorganization and reorientation of the economic and social systems, radical arrangements in installations and administrative structures, as well as reorientations in popular attitudes, customs and belief (Ogunkola and Egwaikhide, 2001). In contemplating development, more than coming to goods and services is at stake.As such, in measuring level of development, the tangible Quality of Life (PQL) is considered, and it is equal weighting of an infant mortality rate, life expectancy, and basic literacy. However the United Nations Developments version of development measurement refers to as world Development Index (HDI) incorporates an income measure. All these elements considered in measuring the level of development of a nation are issuing of level of development of the health and educational sectors, where the eligious sectors in Nigeria has contributed, as can be s een in the Holy Scriptures. For instance two religions in Nigeria, that is, Christianity and Islam recognize that the created universe is subjected to man for the enrichment and fulfillment of his life (Quran 4512-13, 1432-34 and generation 126-28). More so, contrary to the view that religion only tension faith and not works, the Bible and Quran invite men to labour and action (Quran 13 11, 2275 and Exodus 209, Proverbs 163, 2. Thessalonians 310).All the elements that made up the resources originating from human are expressed in their actions, behaviour and daily activities, either in positive and constructive ways, or in a negative and destructive ways (Zainun, 2006), especially with respect to their inherent power to generate value by leveraging other production variables for economic growth development. In carrying out development activities, religion provides some code of norms and obligations which subject man to regulations necessary for the progress of the society. 2 Religi on and Economic Development the Role of Nigerian Intellectuals Saheed, Zakaree S. and Alofun, G. O. O. The Role of Religion in Nigerian Economic Development Religion has contributed much to development of human race, and it will be totally absurd to ignore the contributions of religion, especially Christianity and Islam. Both religious communities have become the key determinants of history and destiny of the nation, and its spacious population, as well as deciding the course of development and building of the nation.Religion is given a reasonable degree of recognition by governments of Nigeria and some other countries as a major factor determining the stability of a nation. The roles of religion in economic development are more pronounced in the educational and health sectors, as well as creation of job opportunities. The Role of Religion in educational Sector in Nigeria Education is a continuous and creative cultivate which aimed at developing the capacities latent in human natu re, and devise their expression for the enrichment and progress of ociety, by equipping students with spiritual, moral and material knowledge. Education in terms of the knowledge, qualities, skills, attitudes and capacities that enable individuals to become conscious subjects of their growth and active amenable participants in a systemic process of building a new world order. In Nigeria, Christian missions pioneered the establishment of primary and secondary schools, and ever since then the two religions, that is, Christianity and Islam, have played a significant role in the establishment of schools in Nigeria.As the primary schools and their products multiplied, secondary schools were realized to satisfy the demand for higher education. The Catholic Missionary Society (CMS) established the C. M. S. Grammar trail in Lagos in 1859, followed by the Methodist Boys High School in 1879 and St. Gregorys College, established by the Catholic in 1881. It is on this foundation that second ary schools education has rested in Nigeria (Olurode, 1999). Many other religion based secondary schools later emerged.These include, Ahmadiyya Grammar School, Anwar-Ul-Islam Grammar School, St. Theresa College, Islamic High School, Ebira Moslem Commintegrity College among many. The religious sector in Nigeria is also involved in establishment of higher institutions, to enhance government effort towards educational development. Among the religion based private higher institutions in Nigeria are listed in table 1. 0 below Table 1. 0 Some religion based private higher institutions in Nigeria S/N Institution 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8.Bowen University, Iwo-Osun resign Fountain University, Osogbo- Ondo enounce Founder/Sponsor The Baptist NASFAT Islam Bishop Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo Anglican church servicees Oyo democracy Al-Hikama University, Ilorin Kwara aver Islamic Foundation (AROIF) and Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY) Redeemer University, Lagos subject The Redeemed Churches Wesley University of Technology, Ondo The Methodist churches State. Covenant University, Lagos state Living Faith Church World 43 Journal of Social Science and Public Policy Volume 3, December 2011 . 10. Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Osun state Christ Apostolic Church VERITAS University (Catholic University of The Catholic Churches Nigeria), Abuja. Source Culled by the authors from lists of private universities in Nigeria The Contribution of Religion to the wellness Sector in Nigeria The spread of western ideas including medicine and social benefit also owed much to the advent of religion in Nigeria. According to Olurode (1997), by the end of the nineteen century, the hospital was as strengthive as the school.By 1914, various missions had established hospitals such as the C. M. S. Iyi Enu infirmary near Onitsha, the Wesley go along Hospital in Ilesha, the Baptist Hospital in Ogbomosho and the Sacred Heart Hospital of the Society for African Missions in Abeokuta. Missionary invo lvement had, as its aim, the obliteration of superstitious beliefs about such diseases as variola major virus. In Yoruba land, for instance, the god of smallpox shoponna had a strong hold on the people which took western medicine, specifically vaccines to break.Even where orthodox medicine failed, some religion has been playing a significant role to proffer spiritual solution to cure illness. The Role of Religion and Nigerian Intellectuals on Socio-ethnic Crisis in Nigeria According to UNHCR (2008) as quoted by Saheed and Alofun (2010), since 1999, more than 10,000 Nigerians have been killed and more properties worth billions of naira have been destroyed in sectarian and communal attacks and reprisals between Muslims and Christians. The most serious of these clashes occurred in Kaduna state in February and May 2000, and no.ember 2002 Jos, Plateau state inSeptember 2001 Kano state and Yelwa, Plateau state between February and May, 2004 and in the northerly and southeastern Nigeria in the wake of the controversy over depictions of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish press in February 2006. Table 2. 0. Some of the Religious Crises in Nigeria in the last one decade Date Events Victims Sept. 2001 July, 2007 Sept. 2007 Dec. 2007 Dec. 2008 July, 2009 Violent clashes between Muslims and Christians in 3,000 people killed Jos, Plateau state.Violent clashes between Sunni and Shia Muslims over 5 people killed the murder of a Sunni cleric in Sokoto Rioting in the Union state of Kano 19 people killed Three churches burned in the Federal state of 10 people killed Bauchi Violent clashes over disputed pick result which 400 people killed degenerated into religion crisis in Jos, Plateau state Two days battle with radical Islamists in two northern 150 people killed cities of Yobe and Bauchi Source Culled by the Authors from the records of UNHCR, GlobalSecurity. org and Mail and Guardian online, 2009 44Religion and Economic Development the Role of Nigerian Intellectuals Sahee d, Zakaree S. and Alofun, G. O. O. All these events, as shown in table 2. 0 above, have a negative effect on Nigerian economy in terms of capital and freeing of lives, especially manpower or human resources with high productivity potentials. In each of these events the role of Nigerian intellectuals calls for question. In the two widely declare religions in Nigeria, that is, the Christianity and Islam, the attractership are intellectuals who are well educated, many of whom are holders of various degrees ranging from bachelor, to masters and even doctorate.They are very influential among their following and the congregations. Their words are like policy within that congregation. They are leaders who are supposed to articulate an ideological vision congruent with deeply held value of the country. They are supposed to engage in alignment, with interpretive orientations such that the countrys interest, value and belief as well as these religions activities, goals and ideology become s congruent and complementary. Universal education must be applicable to he true needs of a fraternity and contribute to the jointure of mankind, in such a way that it will enable the people to move in the care of their own chosen field and help them appreciate those universal qualities that distinguish the human race (Saheed, 2008). However, a accompaniment where misunderstanding between two people in a community degenerated into communal clashes that claimed several lives, or members of congregation dispersed from their places of worship and created riot in the street, then the impact of the message of such religion leader becomes questionable.Is it a sermon of peace or hatred? CONCLUSION AND polity ISSUES Religion, especially Christianity and Islam, to some extent, has contributed to economic development either in nowadays, by influencing and coordinate the expression of the capacities latent in human nature for the progress of the society, and by shaping the moral and soc ial values necessary for development, or directly by its contribution to the growth of the educational and health sectors in Nigeria.However, religious intolerance among the people which often lead to crisis claiming several lives and destruction of properties has a negative impact on Nigerian economy. Adherents of the religious communities, to some extent, have lost focus of their responsibility towards nation building, and are embraced vices such religious fanaticism or intolerance and its attendant problems such as utter(a) intensive strives, fight of superiority, loss of human and material resources.To promote religious tolerance towards national development, the religious communities in Nigeria must wake up to their responsibilities in home so that the problem of moral decadence plaguing the nation will radically reduced. Since many Nigerian families are facing the pangs of unemployment, softness to pay their children and wards school fees among other hardships, the religious bodies should resume their pioneering work in the area of health, education, industry and vocational training to assist the nation, especially in the area of human development.Education should be examined in the light of its contribution to individual growth and to bring about fundamental structural changes in society, changes which are necessary for the creation of a just, peaceful, and harmonious environment, hence teachers and other intellectuals must be a model of nobility, self-actualisation and discipline, since sound character is ultimately more important than intellectual brilliance. A well educated community 45 Journal of Social Science and Public Policy Volume 3, December 2011 ember is a determined yet humble participant, who helps pass over conflict and division thereby contributing to a spirit of unity and collaboration. Therefore, Nigerian education, like a universal education, must be relevant to the needs of the Nigerian communities and contribute to the unification of the people of Nigeria, regardless of their religion and race. It must enable the people both to move in the direction of their choice and help them appreciate those universal qualities that distinguish the entire human race. REFERENCE Barro, J. B. and McClear, R. M. 2003), Religion and Growth, Havard University Press, U. S. A Ikporukpo, C. O. (2001). Government, Society and Economy. Ibadan Stirling-Horden Publishers (Nig. ) Ltd. Lynn, S. R. (2003). Development Economics World. modern Jersey Upper Saddle River Theory and Practice for a divided Nwite, S. C. and Wilson, A. (2010). Churches in Nigeria and Investment Strategies Problems and Prospect. Book of Abstract. Second World Congress on Research and Development, University of Ibadan. Oke, F. A. , et al. (1996). Introduction to Social Institutions. Ibadan Akinlabi Fayinmi Ventures. Saheed, Z. S. (2008). Ebira What Our Problems Is. http//jakomodebiravonyainternational. blogspot. com The Ebiras and the World. Saheed, Z. S. and A lofun, G. O. O, (2010). Nigeria, Five Decades of Sovereignty Rich besides Poor. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Development Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1. Skousen, M. , (2007). Modern Economics Theories. Indonesia Prenada Media Group Publication. Sushmit, N. (2007). Religion & Economic www. mpra. ub. uni-muechen. de/8181 Growth and Development. MPRA. Zainun, B. (2001). Indonesia Human Resources Development. Jakarta PT. Gunung Agung Tbk. 46

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