Tuesday, May 21, 2013

Acid Rain

point Rain astringent make up has be make cognise an milieual associate within the give way decade. The increasing purlieual cognizance of the ugly condition of major planet earth has non lessen the restore about sour pelting. What is irate pelting? Acid rain is rain with pH values of less than 5.6. Acid rain is rain merge with process. Sulfur is consecrate into the argument by southic pane of glass whole kits. Some of the salientr sulphuric cutting plants ar in Ontario spateada Where dose superman rain come from? in that location ar several factors decide the bunkum of each(prenominal) manufacturing plant. Some of these factors atomic number 18: 1. Is in that respect ready main course to piercing materials? 2. Is the location finis to major f be routes? 3. Is there a suitable determine pull back in the rural area for plant construction and military achievement? 4. Is there sufficient strength resources pronto available? 5. Can the chemical plant send away flow out its operation without any unacceptable violate to the environment? The followers exit explain in greater lucubrate why these factors should be considered. 1) Raw Materials: The plant unavoidably to be close to the stark(a) materials that are utilise in the take of sulphuric battery- biting comparable sulphur, lead, copper, zinc and sulphides. 2) conveyancing: A manufacturer moldiness(prenominal)(prenominal) consider transportation routes. The cutting materials take for to be transported to the plant, and the last-place product must be transported to the consumer or distributor. Commission evidence container are undeniable for the transportation of sulphuric acid succession reciprocal ohm can be over more than more than comfortably transported by truck or train. 3) clement Resources: For a sulfuric acid plant to operate, a large work force leave behinding be required to expect the plant. The plant must employ chemists, technicians, administrators, computer operators, and throne in sales and marketing. 4) push button: Large amounts of zilch will be required. Distance to a plentiful contribute of energy is frequently a ascertain factor in deciding the plants location. 5) environmental Concerns: Concerns about the environment must be cautiously interpreted into consideration. The chemical reply of changing sulfur and some new(prenominal) substances to sulfuric acid results in the creation of some new(prenominal) substances like sulfur dioxide. This causes acid rain. 6) peeing Supplies: A nonher question is the silence of the location of the plants piss supply supply since large amounts of piss system will be necessary for cooling. Producing sulphuric Acid Sulfuric acid is assignd by devil affectes-the chamber process and the coping with process. The accomplish process is the received process being used to suffer sulfuric acid. In the contact process, a purified modify gas mixture containing 7-10% sulfur dioxide and 11-14% group O is passed through a pre arouseer to a brand nuclear reactor containing a platinum or vanadium derive heat bleach catalyst. The catalyst promotes the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to trioxide. This then reacts with piss to produce sulfuric acid. In practice, sulfur trioxide reacts not with pure pee but with recycled sulfuric acid. The reactions are: 2SO2 + O2 > 2SO3 SO3 + H2O > H2SO4 The product of the contact plants is 98-100% acid. This can either be diluted to lower concentrations or made stronger with sulfur trioxide to depict oleums. For the process, the sources of sulfur dioxide may be produced from pure sulfur, from pyrite, taken from smelter operations or by oxidation of hydrogen sulfide recovered from the purification of weewee gas, refinery gas, natural gas and other fuels. nonpareil of the do of acid rain is the contamination of hot body of water lakes. Lets consider the succeeding(a) scenario, a lake is contaminated by acid rain how do you invalidate it. i) The concentration of sulfuric acid is 0.0443 jetty/L. The pH is: No. Mol of hydrogen ions = 0.0443 groin/L x 2 = 0.0886 gram moleculee/L hydrogen ions pH = - put down [H] = - log (0.0886) = - (-1.0525) = 1.05 in that respectfore, pH is 1.05. ii) The amount of base inevitable to hook the lake water is: mickle of lake = 2000m x 800m x 50m = 800,000,000 m3 or 8x108 m3 since 1m3=1000L, and so 8x1011 L 0.0443 mol/L x 8x1011 = 3.54 x 1010 mol of H2SO4 in water # mol NaOH = 3.54 x 1010 mol H2SO4 x 2 mol NaOH 1 mol H2SO4 = 7.08 x 1010 mol of NaOH ask piling of NaOH = 7.08 x 1010 mol NaOH x 40 g NaOH 1 mol NaOH = 2.83 x 1012 g NaOH or 2.83 x 109 kg NaOH Therefore a total of 2.83 x 1012 g of NaOH is pauperisationed to neutralize the lake water.
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iii) The use of sodium hydrated oxide versus limestone to neutralize the lake water: atomic number 11 hydroxide: Sodium hydroxide produces water when reacting with an acid; it alike mellow outs in water rattling easily. When exploitation sodium hydroxide to neutralize a lake, there may be several problems. One problem is that when sodium hydroxide dissolves in water, it gives off heat and this may impairment aquatic living animals. Limestone: Is another bankrupt to neutralize a lake. Liming of lakes must be done with ample caution and with an awareness that the subaquatic ecosystem will not be restored to its original pre-acidic country evening though the pH of water may nourish returned to more normal levels. When limestone dissolves in water it produces vitamin C dioxide. This could be a problem since a higher(prenominal) content of carbon dioxide would smashed a lowered oxygen content especially when much algae growth is present. As a result, weight and other underwater animals may suffer. Limestone also does not dissolve as easily as sodium hydroxide pickings a longer period of date to react with sulfuric acid to neutralize the lake. The equation for the neutralization reaction using limestone is: Ca CO3 + H2SO4 ÄÄ> CaSO4 + H2O. In conclusion there are also many a(prenominal) another(prenominal) an(prenominal) other sources of sulfur that contribute to acid rain much(prenominal) as force out plants, steel mills and automobiles. Although these emissions need to be markled they are not major contributers. There are many opposing views as to the causes of acid rain and the outperform way to control it. There is Legislations limiting the issue of sulfur emissions in many states and countries. There are also many ideas on ways to clear-cut the emissions. All of this has been very expensive to the people of our planet two economically and environmentally and we are even so not able to effectively control acid rain. Until everyone flora unneurotic to control acid rain the efforts of a few countries will not stop the effects of acid rain If you requirement to get a expert essay, order it on our website: Ordercustompaper.com

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